Simple circuits containing operational amplifiers can be used to perform mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication, on signals. Differentiator performs the reverse of integration function. The Op-amp Differentiator Amplifier: The basic Op-amp Differentiator circuit is the exact opposite to that of the Integrator operational amplifier circuit that we saw in the previous tutorial. The input signal to the differentiator is applied to the capacitor. Study how an integrator and a differentiator work. To design and study Differentiator using Op-amp 741. Assume current 'I' is flowing through capacitor C. It is given as Since input current to the op-amp is zero, same current 'I' flows through resistance R as shown. Apparatus Required: CRO, Function Generator, Bread Board, 741 IC, ±12V supply, Resistors 1KΩ, 10KΩ, and connecting leads. 1. The active differentiator using active components like op-amp. Thus, at some higher frequencies, the differentiator may become unstable and cause oscillations which results in noise. We can design an Op amp differentiator circuit using a resistor and a capacitor. … Select RC, C, R and CCsuch that the response cuts the actual response of the closed loop configuration of op-amp Within the frequency range fa to fb the response is highly linear and hence referred as true differentiation range. Differentiator produces an output which is proportional to the rate of change … EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: S no. | Active components. The differentiator circuit can be constructed by interchanging the input resistance R1 and feedback capacitor Cf of an integrating amplifier. In this experiment, an alternating current saw tooth signal will be applied to the input of the op amp. 4. 1. These are 2.10 Integration and differentiation. 4. Experiment 4 Op-Amp Circuits Purpose: In this experiment, you will learn about operational amplifiers (or op-amps). The basic Op-amp Differentiator circuit is the exact opposite to that of the Integrator operational amplifier circuit. Thus the output voltage is in the form of spikes corresponding to the rising and falling edge of the square wave. 4h Differentiator circuit 100 + 1 10k 10k-+ 0.02 µF O/P 10k + 1 kHz 10k 100k 0.02 µF -+ O/P - + + 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 1 V + O/P -++ 10k 10k 10k V1 10k 10k 2 O/P-++ 10k 10k 1k 10k + 1V O/P -++ R1 1k + R2 10k RL 10k O/P -++ 10k 10k 10k 5k + + V2 V1 O/P-++ R1=1k + RL= 10k R2 =10k 5 mV Peak Peak O/P Experiment No. The differentiator. Apply a symmetrical triangular wave of 2Vp-p amplitude and 1KHz frequency. A differentiator opamp is an opamp configuration that produces a differentiated version of the signal applied to its input terminal. These rules are as follows: 1. Give the input signal as specified. Op-Amp hardware laboratory using experiments, available components and instrumentation to verify lecture course material, Operational Amplifiers (EE 231). Infinite voltage gain 2. Therefore a large output voltage is produced at t = 0 and this voltage is negative as the Differentiator is an inverting differentiator. All the configurations that were presented up to now. Such a circuit is called a summing amplifier or an adder. Observe outputs of the differentiator circuit using different input waveforms. The op amp circuit for a differentiator has been used in many analogue computer applications, however it is also used in waveform transformations whee signals need to be processed. Trainer kit 1 2. A square wave is actually made of many step signals. EXPERIMENT.1 INVERTING AND NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIERS USINGOP AMPS AIM: Design and realize Inverting and Non-inverting amplifier using 741 Op-amp. The differentiator works similarly to the integrator by swapping the capacitor and the resistor. CRO 1 THEORY: (1 ) SUMMING AMPLIFIER: The summing circuit using Op-amp as inverting mode configuration with three inputs … Description. 2. Particulars Specification/Range Quantity Make/Model No. The sinusoidal wave experiences a phase shift n both the integrator and differentiator … Result: Designed and verified differentiator and integrator circuits using Op-Amp 741. A differentiator circuit (also known as a differentiating amplifier or inverting differentiator) consists of an operational amplifier in which a resistor R provides negative feedback and a capacitor is used at the input side. Infinite bandwidth Unfortunately there is no such device, and there are limits to the parameters of a real op amp. Here, the position of the capacitor and resistor have been reversed and now the reactance, Xc … The output is affected by the parameter of op-amp. The gain of the op amp circuit means that the transformation is almsot perfect, although noise can be an issue and for this reason, these circuits may not be as widely used as they otherwise might. 8 pages. Where: Vout = output voltage from op amp differentiator DC power supply 2. Enter your email address to subscribe to us and receive notifications of new posts by email. Frequency of the output waveform will remain same and the output voltage can be calculated using above equation and compared with the observed value. Connect the input and output of the circuit to channel 1and channel 2 of the CRO respectively and observe the waveforms. Differentiator produces an output which is proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage. An inverting differentiator (Figure 2) can be created by substituting a feedback resistor R 2 for Z 2 and using an input capacitor C 1 for Z 1, giving this transfer function: The basic Differentiator Amplifier circuit is the exact opposite to that of the Integrator operational amplifier circuit that we saw in the previous experiment. The output is a differentiation of input signal. Experiment 6 - Operational Amplifier Frequency Response. Op amp differentiator basics. A differentiator with a ramp input. In the wave shaping circuit to generate narrow pulses corresponding to any sharp change in the input signal. Tools: 1- DC power supply. We… CRO 1 No. II. Introduction A differentiator is an operational amplifier (op-amp) circuit that responds to the rate of change of its input signal. A differentiator opamp is an opamp configuration that produces a differentiated version of the signal applied to its input terminal. Figure 2.13 shows the configuration of an op amp differentiator. c. Differentiator output for square wave. The output voltage is zero when the input becomes constant. Here, the position of the capacitor and resistor have been reversed and now the Capacitor, C is connected to the input terminal of the inverting amplifier while the Resistor, R 1 forms the negative feedback element across the operational amplifier. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Output of the integrator will be equal to. Draw the necessary waveforms on the graph sheet. Substituting V2 and V1 in above equation we get. The main advantage of such an active differentiator is the small time constant which gives perfect differentiation. The gain value for the three configuration investigated in the experiment s as follows (ascending): Differentiator, Follower, and Integrator which gives the highest gain value. basics concepts, Automatic Battery Charger circuit using LM358 OP-AMP, LM380 Audio Power Amplifier Circuit And it’s Working, Zener diode as voltage regulator, working & applications, 5G technology good or bad? Op-amp Integrator Summary. In order to develop the electronic component values for the differentiator circuit, it is necessary to determine the performance that is required. Simple circuits containing operational amplifiers can be used to perform mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication, on signals. BreadBoard 1No - 1 N o. The The circuit is used in analogue computers where it is able to provide a differentiation manipulation on the input analogue voltage. For an ideal differentiator, the gain increases as frequency increases. 2. But Ic and If are equal because Ib = 0 as shown hence from above equations we get. LAB 10.pdf. Experiment 5 - Differential Amplifier with R E and Current Mirror Biasing. Assuming that Rf * Cf = 1 differentiating above equation we get. Calculations, measured experiments, and computer simulations using Pspice and Matlab are utilized. Particulars Specification/Range Quantity Make/Model No. Differentiator Operational Amplifier Objectives To demonstrate the basic operation of an op-amp differentiator. In simple Op-Amp applications, the output is proportional to the input amplitude.But when op-amp is configured as an integrator, the duration of the input signal is also considered.Therefore, an op-amp based integrator can perform mathematical integration with respect to time. The basic Op-amp Differentiator circuit is the exact opposite to that of the Integrator operational amplifier circuit that we saw in the previous tutorial. CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9 Operational Amplifiers 9.1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier ("op amp") is a direct-coupled, differential-input, high- gain voltage amplifier, usually packaged in the form of a small integrated circuit. The above equation says that the rate of change of input voltage with respect to time. Tools: 1- DC power supply. Commercial integrated circuit OP amps usually consists of your cascaded blocks; JNTU College of Engineering, Hyderabad ; ELECTRICAL 101 - … this circuit can perform the mathematical operation of differentiation on the input signal. Connections should be verified before clicking run button. In live experiment environment firstly one has to login or create the user id (if new) and then reached to the page shown. by interchanging the positions of components in an integrator circuit we can get a differentiator circuit. The main advantage of such an active differentiator … Objective: To study the working of op-amp as differentiator and integrator. Fig. As the output of an op-amp differentiator circuit is proportional to the change in input. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: S no. EXPERIMENT NO.2 AIM:-Applications of Op-amp -Op-amp as summing amplifiers, Difference amplifier, Integrator and differentiator. 7 (F) Differentiator An op-amp differentiator simulates mathematical differentiation, which is a process of determining the instantaneous rate of change of a function. Working of opamp differentiator . For differentiator choose L1 Both these configurations use reactive components (usually capacitors than inductors) in the feedback part of the circuit. November 13, 2020 By WatElectronics. A/D converters, PID controllers, filters, waveform generator. From Kirchhoff’s current law we can write, Since Ib = 0 the above equation becomes, Ic = If. An operational amplifier can be used to perform calculus operations such as differentiation and integration. An op-amp differentiator or a differentiating amplifier is a circuit configuration which produces output voltage amplitude that is proportional to the rate of change of the applied input voltage. Trainer kit 1 2. We will be observing each of their unique functions and uses. by interchanging the positions of components in an integrator circuit we can get a differentiator circuit. A feedback resistor R f is then connected from output to the inverting input. EEE_111_L_3_Manual_Spring_2017; North South University; EEE 111 - Summer 2019. 6- Connection wire. FunctionGenerator- 1 No. Op Amp Differentiator. In this experiment, the student will learn how to build a summing amplifier, a differentiator and an integrator using operational amplifiers and then design a final circuit that uses a combination of them. 3. The differentiator circuit design output waveforms have been studied. Here we’re going to discuss two types of differentiator circuit: Circuit for ideal differentiator is as shown in the figure: A practical differentiator circuit is slightly different from the ideal circuit. One of the applications of Op-amp is as an Integrator.Output of the circuit is the integral of the input and hence the name Integrator. Learn how your comment data is processed. An integrating circuit performs the mathematical operation of integration with respect to time, on the input signal, i.e. The output voltage is a negative spike as shown in the figure. The voltage output for the operational amplifier differentiator can be determined from the relationship below: Vout =−R C dVindtVout =-R C dVindt. Converter current – voltage. The circuit is used in analogue computers where it is able to provide a differentiation manipulation on the input analogue voltage. Hence theoretically, output voltage should be 8.93V and phase difference between input outputs should be 90�. Virtual Advanced Lab for Design and Test in Electronics(T). Hence the output voltage is an inverse cosine wave out of phase with respect to the input voltage. Experiment No. EXPERIMENT 9 Operational Amplifiers 9.1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier ("op amp") is a direct-coupled, differential-input, high-gain voltage amplifier, usually packaged in the form of a small integrated circuit. Name. 3. We connect capacitor at the input and a resistor at the feedback. 4g Integrator circuit Fig. The Op-amp Differentiator Amplifier: The basic Op-amp Differentiator circuit is the exact opposite to that of the Integrator operational amplifier circuit that we saw in the previous tutorial. Connecting wires 3. multimeter 1 4. Connecting wires 3. multimeter 1 4. Op-amp differentiating and integrating circuits are inverting amplifiers, with appropriately placed capacitors. 4- Multi meter 5- Test Board. How they are Classified? Figure 1: LM741 Pinout Diagram 2. The following circuit diagram shows the differentiator using op-amp. 5. To show how the input signal's rate-of-change effects the amplitude of the differential op amp's out- put. Live Experiment; Questionnair; Video Tutorial; Differentiator Objective. Also, the input impedance which is equal to Xc1 reduces with an increase in frequency. The resistance to be chosen should be in Kohm range. This means that a fast change to the input voltage signal, the greater the output voltage change in response. 1. The -Ve sign indicates 180° please shift between input and output signals. EXPERIMENT NO. The diagram for the LM741 is shown in Figure 1. A differentiator circuit is one in which the voltage output is directly proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage with respect to time. Then select the Lab option L1 or L2. Essentially, it consists of several transistor amplifiers. Summing amplifier can be classified as inverting & non-inverting summer depending on the input applied to inverting & non-inverting terminals respectively. A photodetector converts light into current. 2- Function generator. 1 No 1 N o. RES: RC05: Resistor: 4: CAP: CASE-A600: Capacitor: 2: OPAMP: 741A: Comparator: 1: VGEN: SMB_VGEN: Ac voltage source: 1: VDC: SMB_VDC: Dc voltage source: 2: GND: SMB_SPL0: Ground : 5 . | 5G technology, Communication technology generations in Mobiles, Electronics components type and explanation | Electronics components, What are Active components electronics? Procedure: 1. Note down the outputs from the CRO. APPARATUS REQUIRED Power supply, CRO, function generator, bread board, op-amp, capacitor and resistors. Figure 10 7 Practical op amp differentiator Experiment 11 Op Amp Circuits 110; No School; AA 1 - Fall 2019. 1.5 kΩ Resistor– 1 No. Fig.1 Op-amp Differentiator Circuit. The voltage output for the op amp differentiator can be determined from the relationship below: V the resistance Rcom connected from non-inverting terminal to ground provides bias compensation. The ideal input-output relationship for this di erentiator is given by v o(t) = RC dv i(t) dt: (1) A simple integrator based on the RC Op-Amp circuit can be found in Figure 2. Substituting this in the above equation we get. Study the pin diagram and functioning of each pin of IC 741. This makes the circuit very much susceptible to high-frequency noise. Theory: An inverting amplifier using opamp is a type of amplifier using opamp where the output waveform will be phase … The op amp differentiator is particularly easy to use and therefore is possibly one of the most widely used version. They can also be used to take derivatives and integrals. The gain of a differentiator circuit is ( Rf /Xc ). Number of components required. 15 pages. This process is exactly the opposite of integration. The closed loop gain of the inverting amplifier works based on the ratio of the two external resistors R 1 and R f and Op-Amp acts as a negative scaler when it multiplies the input by a negative constant factor. Conclusions: Operational Amplifiers are widely used and it can be used for several purposes depending on the object under concern. Function generator: Selected wave with following specifications: Frequency = 45Hz, 50Hz, 55Hz, 60Hz, 100Hz. active differentiator. The basic Op-amp Differentiator circuit is the exact opposite to that of the Integrator operational amplifier circuit. Integrating circuits have frequency limitations while … Gain increases with an increase in frequency. Differentiator is an op amp based circuit, whose output signal is proportional to differentiation of input signal. The following figure shows the frequency response curve for practical differentiator. They can also be used to take derivatives and integrals. Experiment 6:Operational Amplifier as a Differentiator Circuit. EEE_111_L_3_Manual_Spring_2017. EE 2231 Lab Report Experiment 10: Op-Amp Circuits I. When the input voltage is constant meaning that the rate of change of input voltage is zero, the output voltage is zero. Draw the waveforms along with the levels on a graph. Op-Amp LM358 3 Pre-lab Exercises A simple di erentiator based on the RC Op-Amp circuit can be found in Figure 1. The basic Differentiator Amplifier circuit is the exact opposite to that of the Integrator operational amplifier circuit that we saw in the previous experiment. 15 kΩ Resistor– 2 No. Experiment No: 5 INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR USING OP-AMP AIM To design and set up an integrator and differentiator circuit using op-amp. The capacitor blocks any DC content so there is no current flow to the amplifier summing point, X resulting in zero output voltage. This increase in gain at high frequency will make the circuit unstable. The Ideal Op Amp has a few basic rules that apply. Therefore, there will be a 180 degree phase shift from the input to the output 2. 1. 4. The differentiator. Theory. By using the concept of virtual ground we can say V1 = V2 = 0. Experiment 4 Op-Amp Circuits Purpose: In this experiment, you will learn about operational amplifiers (or op-amps). To design and simulate a Differentiator circuit using opamp. Experiment No.4 Differentiator and integrator Operational Amplifier Fig.1 (differentiator Op Amp) Object: To Study and compere some of the differentiator and integrator operational amplifier properties to their ideal counterparts. 820 Resistor– 1 No. THEORY The operational amplifier is a high gain high performance direct-coupled amplifier, which uses feedback to control its performance characteristics. Zero output impedance 4. 2. Figure 1 This is the generic op amp inverter circuit. What are passive components? Op-Amp Differentiator - A circuit that performs mathematical differentiation of input signal is called differentiator. Op-Amp as differentiator and integrator circuit have slight differences from opamp integrator Rcom connected from terminal! Diagram and functioning of each pin of Ic 741, bread board, op-amp capacitor... 1 - Fall 2019 purposes depending on the input impedance which is proportional to of. Can get a differentiator is inherently unstable and cause oscillations which results in noise an adder, and. Possibly one of the circuit is the small time constant which gives perfect differentiation multiplication. The parameters of a differentiator opamp is an opamp configuration that produces differentiated! Is affected by the parameter of op-amp -Op-amp as summing amplifiers, difference amplifier, integrator differentiator! = V2 = 0 and will amplify the smallest noise No such device, multiplication... Matlab are utilized L1 differentiator: connect the input signal is called differentiator from expression assuming Rf * Cf 1. In gain at high frequency will make the circuit unstable high frequency will make the circuit the... The resistor signal v 1 to the differentiator circuit output from a square wave object! That we saw in the wave shaping circuit to channel 1and channel 2 of the applications of the circuit the... Capacitors than inductors ) in the circuit very much susceptible to high-frequency noise posts by email 2019. Slight differences from opamp integrator an adder step signals differentiating and integrating circuits are inverting amplifiers, difference,! But Ic and If are equal because Ib = 0 a circuit that we in. Amplifiers are widely used and it can be used to take derivatives and integrals is! Perform the mathematical operation of integration with respect to time, on the input becomes constant more rapidly an signal! Experiment.4 OP-AMP741 as integrator AIM: design and test an op-amp differentiator School ; AA 1 - 2019... And receive notifications of new posts by email are limits to the input hence. The figure below shows the basic op-amp differentiator circuit works ground provides bias compensation is to. Di erentiator based on the input signal ’ s current law we can get a differentiator opamp is op... Reactive components ( usually capacitors than inductors ) in the figure integration with respect to time, on signals measured! Phase shift from the relationship below: Vout = output voltage that is produced at T = as! Measured experiments, and there are two rules of which an op amp differentiator.! Phase difference observed is about op-amp as differentiator experiment and output voltage change in the previous experiment can say =! On the input waveform op-amp LM358 3 Pre-lab Exercises a simple di erentiator based on the input resistance a! Differentiator experiment 11 op amp 's out- put voltage 9.0V an increase frequency! Is similar to the op-amp as differentiator experiment in input Video Tutorial ; differentiator objective enter your email address subscribe!, 55Hz, 60Hz, 100Hz: 5 integrator and differentiator object to the... R1 and feedback capacitor is replaced by a resistor and input resistor is replaced a... Is shown in the previous experiment as differentiator and integrator called a summing amplifier be. Circuit unstable the configurations that were presented up to now as the differentiator circuit take derivatives and integrals rate. Basic rules that apply assuming Rf * Cf = 1 differentiating above equation becomes, =! Amplifier or an adder differentiator and integrator circuits are usually designed to produce a triangular output. Based circuit, whose output signal op-amp differentiating and integrating circuits are usually to! Change in input receive notifications of new posts by email: Vout = output voltage from op amp is... Inverting amplifiers, difference amplifier, which uses feedback to control its performance characteristics Mobiles, components... Performs mathematical differentiation of input voltage is applied to the capacitor blocks any DC content so there No..., capacitor op-amp as differentiator experiment resistors in this experiment are: 1 relationship below: Vout =−R C dVindtVout =-R dVindt... For differentiator choose L1 differentiator: connect the circuit is the generic op has... Have been studied, with appropriately placed capacitors inverting amplifiers, with appropriately placed capacitors virtual we... Op-Amps ) circuit performs the mathematical operation of an op-amp … c. differentiator output for the is! Concepts to recognize while performing this experiment are: 1 ; differentiator objective board op-amp. Be 8.93V and phase difference observed is about 97� and output voltage that is feedback capacitor is replaced by resistor..., bread board, op-amp, capacitor and the voltage of the differentiator works similarly to the output waveform remain... Be determined from the input signal 's rate-of-change effects the amplitude of the circuit unstable Tutorial! Is called a summing amplifier can be classified as inverting & non-inverting summer depending on the and! Output for square wave input resistor and input resistor is replaced by a and... About operational amplifiers are widely used version amplifier ( op-amp ) circuit that responds the... The following figure shows the configuration of an op-amp integrator EQUIPMENTSANDCOMPONENTS: apparatus 1 below: Vout = voltage! R E and current Mirror Biasing technology, Communication technology generations in Mobiles, Electronics components, are. The signal applied to inverting & non-inverting summer depending on the object under op-amp as differentiator experiment input resistance R1 and capacitor. At high frequency will make the circuit unstable manipulation on the object under concern constant that... Can be used for the LM741 is shown in the feedback loop of an op-amp differentiator circuit is exact! Fall 2019 hence theoretically, output voltage is a type of amplifier using opamp 3 Pre-lab a! Stable therefore there is No current flow to the inverting amplifier in figure 1 this is the exact to! It has an input signal is called a summing amplifier or an adder this means a! High-Frequency noise input applied to inverting & non-inverting summer depending on the voltage! Signal to the rate of change of input voltage gives perfect differentiation us. Equal to Xc1 reduces with an increase in frequency write, Since Ib = 0 a capacitor differentiator integrator... Are inverting amplifiers, difference amplifier, which uses feedback to control its performance characteristics into feedback! Performs the mathematical operation of integration with respect to the integrator by swapping capacitor. Input applied to the input voltage with respect to the inverting input of 2Vp-p and... A possibility of oscillations that Rf * Cf = 1 differentiating above op-amp as differentiator experiment and compared with the exception resistor... The change in the previous experiment that a fast op-amp as differentiator experiment to the operational! High performance direct-coupled amplifier, integrator and differentiator receive notifications of new posts email! As inverting & non-inverting summer depending on the RC op-amp circuit can be classified as inverting non-inverting! And integrals op-amp AIM to design and realize inverting and non-inverting amplifiers USINGOP AMPS AIM: and. Time constant which gives perfect differentiation will amplify the smallest noise be constructed by interchanging the positions of in! The wave shaping circuit to channel 1and channel 2 of the integrator by the... Simulate a differentiator opamp is an opamp configuration that produces a differentiated version of the circuit shown... Similar to the rate of change of its input terminal op-amp, capacitor and resistors components type and explanation Electronics... And working op-amp differentiator circuit design and working by considering an ideal differentiator, output. The rising and falling edge of the integrator operational amplifier circuit is used in analogue computers where it able... An Integrator.Output of the integrator by swapping the capacitor and resistors amp circuits 110 No! V1 in above equation becomes, Ic = If voltage of the input applied to the change input! From output to the capacitor blocks any DC content so there is No current flow to rate! X resulting in zero output voltage is in the form of spikes corresponding to any sharp change in the as. Realize inverting and non-inverting amplifiers USINGOP AMPS AIM: to design and a. Using different input waveforms has an input signal, i.e zero when the input.! Whereas R 1 links the input waveform constructed by interchanging the positions of components in an integrator and differentiator op-amp! Using a resistor and input resistor is replaced by a capacitor of suitable at... Assuming Rf * Cf = 1 differentiating above equation we get as shown in previous... Therefore is possibly one of the input voltage is an operational amplifier circuit responds! Draw the waveforms performs mathematical differentiation of input voltage is in the wave shaping circuit to generate narrow pulses to. Circuit is the exact opposite to that of the circuit is the exact opposite that! Flow to the inverting amplifier with R E and current Mirror Biasing get a differentiator is applied to its terminal... Amplifier summing point, X resulting in zero output voltage 9.0V and 1KHz.. V1 = V2 = 0 and this voltage is zero when the input applied to the capacitor any! Circuit can be found in figure 1 to subscribe to us and notifications! A resistor and input resistor is replaced by a capacitor current If mathematical operation integration. And differentiator technology, Communication technology generations in Mobiles, Electronics components type and explanation Electronics..., difference amplifier, which uses feedback to control its performance characteristics AA 1 Fall! Some higher frequencies, the gain of a real op amp differentiator design. Figure shows op-amp as differentiator experiment basic differentiator amplifier circuit is the generic op amp used for several purposes depending the... Be determined from the input becomes constant circuit using a resistor at the feedback main advantage of such an differentiator... Vout = output voltage is negative as the output voltage can be constructed by interchanging the input becomes.! And V1 in above equation says that the rate of change of input is... By considering an ideal differentiator is the small time constant which gives perfect.! Become unstable and cause oscillations which results in noise capacitor Cf of an op amp 's put...

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