The British believed the lesson of the American Revolution was to restrain the power of the people. He believes this attitude is evident in the tight grasp the British had on the justice system, in there educational reforms, and assimilation politics (Franices, 265-266). Some wished to declare Independence where some were fed up with economic conditions; while others wished to have a greater influence in the political realm some had fears of racial discrimination. Here you can order a professional work. Lord Durham was named governor on May of 1839 and was in placed in charge of establishing an inquiry into the rebellions. A Scottish-born newspaper publisher named William Lyon Mackenzie was a fierce critic of the Family Compact and led the rebellion. It is difficult to pin point the exact reasons why each rebellion occurred and the roles that individual classes played. Government loyalists dispersed the rebels with a few shots, ending Mackenzie's erratic attempt to overthrow the colonial government. Bond Head tried to buy peace with the reformers by appointing two of them, Dr. Rolph and Robert Baldwin to the executive council. As a result, the rebels would either have a death penalty or be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years. Le Meilleur de Ennio Morricone - Les Plus Belles Musiques de Films - [High Quality Audio] - Duration: 47:06. It was a classic example of a situation in which the class contradictions reached a point where an open confrontation had to breakout. A party called the “Reform Party” was seeking a more democratic government but they got most of its support from Americans, not Loyalists. ( Log Out /  The research in this proposal primarily focuses on the rebellions that took place in both upper and Lower Canada during 1838. After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. This proposal will give a broad view of political reality not dominated by a specific school of thought. This policy would help combat the Dangerous idea of French nationalism, a common theme during this time period. What Caused the rebellion in Upper Canada? The large debt Upper Canada had accumulated by the building of expensive canals would be shared by Lower Canada. Many factors were accountable to this change which includes the Loyalists migration north and of course the Constitutional Acts of 1791and 1867. The insurrection of Upper Canada, led by William Lyon MacKenzie, was quickly overturned. The Compact dominated the running of the government. Other sources will include scholarly internet sources, database articles, history text books and online journals. Liberal Nationalist scholars support the idea that the rebellion was an attempt to gain independence from Britain (Creighton 323). A study of individual scholars an there ideologies is important to the understanding of there viewpoints on which causes affected the rebellions. More than 880 people were jailed on suspicion of treason. Johnson argues the system was designed to create an upper class at the expense of the poor farmers (Franices, 290-291). Following the Rebellion in Upper Canada "The rebellion had failed. The results of these rebellions are more black and white in comparison to establishing the causes (Coates, 284). During this time period an economic crisis had swept both Upper and Lower Canada. Cultural divisions aggravated the struggle because Anglophone, Protestant people controlled the council and Francophone, Catholic Canadiens were the majority of the Assembly. But they we… The Upper Canada Rebellion also ended quite unsuccessful. One of the outcomes from these rebellions was the restructuring of the Canadian Parliament. Many factors played a role in these rebellions including the agricultural crisis, rise of nationalism, desire for an independent state, the corrupt seigniorial system, an unresponsive government not willing to cooperate, as well role of individual personalities and class struggles. In Lower Canada, there were many reasons why the rebellions occurred. The thesis of this research is that a range of factors attributed to the rebellions in Canada, each conflict had various affects on different social groups. The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. A group of wealthy English families called the “Family Compact” … The British, French, and Spanish had sought after these new found lands ... ... the reality is that its supporting political, economic, and military structures were more powerful ... set hierarchically below man). It is important to understand that different scholars defend different views on which causes actually attributed to the rebellion. Donald Creighton attributes the rebellions to a long played out agricultural and commercial struggle. Historians from various schools of thought continually disagree on the factors of causation leading up to the rebellions. Modern Scholars do not agree on which conflicts started the rebellion. On 5 December 1837, a few hundred rebels exchanged gunfire with a smaller group of Loyalist militia on Yonge Street, Toronto. This reform was a major step towards Canadian confederation in 1867 (Greer, 135.). The Muslim Democrats: A Major Political Economic Problem All Muslim democrats are national Islamists ... All Papers Are For Research And Reference Purposes Only. The two rebellions had similar causes. -instead of accepting the 92 resolutions, the British Colnial Secretary passed the 10 resolutions which revoked their power -Upper Canada was on the upper end of the St.Lawrence River near the east side of Quebec -elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1828 In Lower Canada, the rebellions were more widespread in 1837, … Similar to Lower Canada, the troubles in Upper Canada continued throughout 1838 but the decisive acts of the revolution occurred towards the end of 1837. These groups reacted in there own way to the problems that effected them. Cool video about the upper canada rebellion. A group of rich English merchants called the “Château Clique” were appointed by the British governor to hold power in the council, which meant the governor decided to always appoint members in this group to be in the council. The French support of the colonials during the American Revolution was essential to their ultimate success in defeating the British troops and securing their future as an independent nation. Here you can order a professional work. This resulted in small groups of well off men in each colony having a great deal of power. Many aspects of these rebellions will be explored including class struggles, economic conditions, and racial conflicts, role of the clergy, the nationalistic and liberal movements and the quest for independence. Here are the main events of the rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada. His temperament and conviction led him to the point where he not only advocated armed rebellion against the colonial government but led it. He points out that the rebellion began after a succession of crop failures. There was also popular opposition to land-granting practices. The Rebellions of 1837–1838 (French: Les rébellions de 1837), were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. The question driving this research is what caused the insurrections in Upper and Lower Canada during 1837 and 1838. -The French Canadians prevented the Assembly from granting money for projects, such as canals, which the English-speaking merchants wanted. The rebellions in Upper Canada were to bring about an American style democracy, while the rebellions in Lower Canada were largely due to discrimination against the French, unequal taxation, and lack of power within the government to bring about any reformation. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The rebellions of 1837-1838 in Upper and Lower Canada constitute one of the most important episodes of this history. (Find a price that suits your requirements), * Save 10% on First Order, discount promo code "096K2". These rebellions sit between the War of 1812 and the more famous rebellions of Louis Riel, but their impact is anything but small. The thesis of this research is that a range of factors attributed to the rebellions in Canada, each conflict had various affects on different social groups. These groups reacted in there own way to the problems that effected them. (Find a price that suits your requirements). Durham whom was sympathetic to the merchant class believed the French were a threat to the British commerce in Lower Canada. These policies favoured r… Mackenzie saw this as an opportunity to lead a rebellion of his own. As a result, the rebels would either have a death penalty or be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years. Another reason for the rebellions was a cholera epidemic in Lower Canada brought by the British and Irish. Another result was the idea of Responsible government and financial accountability. Scholars for Upper Canada such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist support the idea that the rebellion was a bourgeoisie democratic revolution. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform. British Loyalists ... Canada; "...the rural Clear Grits of Upper Canada, ... and lower taxes, ... ... life in the colonies. Cinema Hotel Recommended for you In 1837 and 1838, insurrections against the British colonial government arose in Lower and Upper Canada. Hope we can find out though . Canada evolved into a nation during the 18th and 19th centuries. The French canadiens blamed the British for it because they believed they should have immigrated after the epidemic, which was over in Britain at the time. Causes of the rebellion in Upper Canada -The rebellions led to the appointment of Lord Durham and the Durham Report -The source of the problems was the conflict between French and English. Political, Economic & Social effects of Accounting Standard Setters'The view that accounting standard setters consider the economic, political ... can prepare these reports reflecting huge economic, political or social influences, allowing groups in ... ... having previously been supporters and advocates of political violence. In his report, he recommended that the Unification of the Lower and Upper Canada was of paramount importance and that they should form the Province of Canada, and this would help in the assimilation of the French-Speaking citizens into the culture and the ways of the British Empire. The upper Canada Rebellion also ended quite unsuccessful. Colin Read suggest multiple causes for the rebellion including individual family ties and loyalties, as well the rebels ignorance of the militia might. The attacks were very poorly organized and were put down quickly. The economic crisis that dominated upper and Lower Canada also played a large part so commerce scholars will be included as well. In Upper Canada there were different reasons why the rebellions occurred. that was not worth the american live 2. These scholars all contribute a different angle to the insurrection in Lower Canada. They controlled the system of patronagethroughout the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. The time line of this proposal will include events prior to the actual rebellions as they are significant to the understanding of the causes of these uprisings. Local affairs would be handled by the colonial government. Originating in modern-day Quebec, (then called Lower Canada) this independence movement was sparked by a rebellion against the Crown by the “Parti patriote”, or Patriote Party and their followers from 1837 to 1838. Hundreds of other Reformers fled the country to escape punishment. CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF To what Extent did the Rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada (1837) Lead to Canada's Responsible Government in 1867 Why Was the Provisional Government Overthrown in Russia Nicholas II didn’t have the political will, didn’t have the emperor’s charisma … This along with the economic depression caused two violent outbursts against the British. Papineau went into exile in Paris after the second rebellion failed. 10 The British theologian C. S. Lewis suggested ... it into a more specific form: Lower grade energy resources will always ... ... that made the colonists’ dreams begin to dim. Rebellion in Upper Canada The insurgency in Lower Canada inspired Anglophone radicals in the neighbouring colony to take their own action against the Crown, although theirs would be a smaller, less deadly revolt. The most important aspect of this proposal deals with the aftermath of the Canadian insurrections. This was followed by more looting and destruction of the countryside. Lower Canada Should Adopt a New Style of Government, The Migration Causes Conflict with Canadiens. Two of Mackenzie's supporters were hanged, ninety-two were deported, and twenty-six were banished from Canada. The research for this topic will primarily focus on articles written by historians from several schools of thought including Marxists, socialists, and nationalists. Investors who buy land cheap, hold on to it until the price goes up, then sells it at a profit. The overall effect of the Durham report was the establishment of separation of power between Britain and the colonial government. In 1836, the demands of the reformers for a responsible government were again refused by the Crown and a new governor general for the province, Sir Francis Bond Head, was in charge of delivering the news. Analyzing multiple scholars from different schools of thoughts is essential in order to understand which conflicts affected which people. Both Canada’s were besieged by conflicts not only in the political and economic spectrums, but more evidently in the division of there social classes. Multiple problems mixed with multiple classes caused for a range of reactions. After the rebellions, Both Papineau and McKenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. These were the main reasons why the rebellions occurred. I don’t know why the rebellions accured. The colonial governor would have to choose the executive council from elected member of the majority party in the Legislative. In Lower Canada, there were two rebellions, one in 1837 and one in 1838, led by Louis Joseph Papineau. Some of the causes were similar, rooted in the governing structure imposed by the 1791 constitution, while other causes developed from each colony’s particular character. In Upper Canada, 24 rebels were exiled to Australia, and two were hanged (Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews).The British government sent Lord … C. cvc121. The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) in December 1837.While public grievances had existed for years, it was the rebellion in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec), which started the previous month, that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to revolt. The uprisings left 98 rebels and 27 British soldiers dead. Many scholars restrict themselves to one perspective when analyzing these rebellions. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. You must cite our web site as your source. He believed the French people of Lower Canada held a high level of animosity towards the English, and the only solution to the problem was the assimilation of French culture into the soon to be larger British society. The British, French, and Spanish had hopes for colonies that would yield economic benefit and also had ... in the interests of colonization in the Americas. This proposal will not offer original information rather a reinterpretation of old knowledge. A grand sweeping theory incorporating 1 or 2 causes does not show the reality of these insurrections. This is not an example of the work written by professional academic writers. Papineau and his Patriotes demanded many things from the British such as control over the ways that the revenue was spent in the colony and responsible government. ( Log Out /  He believed many farmers had American born parents who instilled a hatred for the British administration (Read 123). The political, economic, and social development between the ending of the ... goods. When fights broke out in Lower Canada, British troops stationed in York (Toronto) in Upper Canada were sent as reinforcements. These groups reacted in there own way to the problems that effected them. Moderates hoped to reform the political system, while radicals yearned for a restructuring of both administration and society (Read , 19-21). Reasons in favor of U.S. Involvement in the Boxer Rebellion: Reasons against U.S. involvement in the Boxer Rebellion: The united state what to gain economic The united states was going to fight battle power not get into another war. Nearly 100 rebels were also captured. What happened and what caused it to? Write a powerful and memorable topic ... Murray Green Wood supports the idea of an anti-French attitude in British politics as early as 1791 in the Constitutional Act. In Upper Canada, people were inspired to make their own rebellion. Three days later, there was a small confrontation in Brantford where the insurgents were also put down quickly. The French and the English also fought a lot during elections. For this reason some sources will be scholars from political science discipline. The radicals had practice and were ready for a rebellion … After the rebellion was put down, Papineau and his Patriotes fled to America where American volunteers helped them organize a second rebellion launched in 1838 but was quickly put down due to poor organization. For more information about the Rebellions of 1837 and 1838, flip through this newspaper and you will find more about the rebellions. At the end of the rebellion, in search for the causes the British parliament send Lord Durham who plays a significant role in shaping Canada’s political culture (Read, 67). Why did the rebellions occur? The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. Now you know what caused the rebellions of 1837 and 1838 and what happened in them. Almost as severe was the sentencing of 100 Canadian rebels and American sympathizers to transportation for life in Australia's prison colonies.The root cause of resentment in Upper Canada was not so much against distant rulers in Britain, but rather a… North American History. It seems evident that individual people reacted to the problems that affected them in a certain way. The British were extremely fearful of the ideas sprung from Napoleon and the French revolution. As well the governor would have to abide by the general wishes of the elected assembly. It is significant to note that no theory is generally accepted on the causes of these rebellions. Maurice Sguin, a nationalist argues the habitants were involved in a struggle for liberation. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Change ). Rebellion in Upper Canada (1837) Thread starter cvc121; Start date Nov 11, 2014; Tags 1837 canada rebellion upper; Home. The Essay on British And French Before 1750 To The Native Americans, The Essay on The Growth Of A Nation Canada, CANADIAN POLITICAL PARTIES: The Four Political Parties of Canada, British, French, And Spanish Imperial Goals In North America, Political, Economic, And Social Development, Political Economic and Social Effects of Accounting Standards. With the union of these two colonies into one state Upper Canada had the most to gain. Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. The “discovery” by Columbus of the New World in 1492 was followed by the establishments of European colonies with French initially in the north and down the Mississippi. The English would gain a slight population majority which would be further reinforced by the arrival of new immigrants. World History Forum.  The rebellion of 1837 were armed uprisings that took place in Upper and Lower Canada, which is now Ontario and Quebec, in 1837 to 1838. David Creighton again supports the idea of a long played out commerce battle between Agrarian Interests (represented Mackenzie and his followers) and the Executive and Legislative Council (controlled by the British elite) whom held Commercial Interests. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. An important part of this proposal is dissecting the theories of historians, economist and political scientist from a wide range of diverse ideologies. Canada as we know it today owes a lot to two rebellions that occurred nearly 200 years ago. Also, beginning in 1820, the Parti canadien followed by the Parti patriote, both of which were seeking more democratic government, controlled the majority of the seats in the elected assembly. After the rebellions in 1837-1838, the Act of Union was passed, uniting Upper and Lower Canada into the single Province of Canada. The rebellions of 1837–38. In Lower Canada, The Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 in Upper and Lower Canada are remarkable episodes in Canadian history. The 1822 attempt to unite Upper and Lower Canada as a measure to have English speaking Canadians form a majority of the population in the Canadas. The causes of the rebellion in Upper Canada are unique and quite different from Lower Canada. The cause of the American patriots was not seeing much success against the British for a good long while after the start of the war. "In Upper Canada, popular discontent centred around the government's land policies, its attempts to encourage commercial and industrial development, and its favouritism toward the Church of … However statistical data of this kind is often incomplete and unreliable. The Essay on Were The Upper And Lower Canada Rebellions in 1837 a Success? The causes of each rebellion are unique, and in both cases multiple conflicts within the social realm occurred. 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